Employment of mathematicians is expected to increase by 16 percent from 2010 to 2020, about as fast as the average for all occupations. Advancements in technology that allow for better collection and processing of data will lead to an expanding need for mathematicians to analyze the data.
Competition for jobs is expected because there are relatively few mathematician positions.
The number of Ph.D. degrees awarded in mathematics continues to exceed the number of available university positions. Therefore, many graduates will need to find jobs in industry or government. Those with a Ph.D. and a strong background in a related discipline—such as engineering, computer science, physics, or operations research—should have the best job prospects in related occupations, because they can best apply mathematical theory to real-world problems.
Those with a master's degree should have opportunities in applied mathematics. One use for applied mathematics will be in the growing field of cloud computing, in which companies and governments buy access to data storage and computing power over the Internet. Increasing migration to cloud computing is creating many new sources of data that have to be mined and analyzed. Mathematicians who have a master’s degree will likely find opportunities in private industry.
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2012-13 Edition